Appendix:ကြိယာအာရဗဳဂမၠိုင်

နူ ဝိက်ရှေန်နရဳ
အ​ညွှန်း​သို့ ခုန်ကူးရန် ရှာဖွေရန် ခုန်ကူးမည်

Derived stems (sound verbs)[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Arabic Verbs
Arabic Nouns

Arabic verbs are noted for an unusual system of derivation. From any particular root various verb stems may be formed. Western scholars usually refer to these derivations as “form I”, “form II”, ... up through “form XV,” though these designations are not used indigenously, where they are referred to by derivations from the root ف ع ل (f-ʿ-l). Accordingly, form I would be فَعَلَ (faʿala), form II would be فَعَّلَ (faʿʿala), etc. These forms refer to triliteral roots (those made of three consonants). There are also quadriliteral roots, made up of four consonants, which come in four forms, “form Iq”, “form IIq”, “form IIIq” and “form IVq”. Triliteral forms XI through XV and quadriliteral forms IIIq and IVq are rare and tend to be intransitive, often stative, verbs (having the meaning “to be or become X” where X is an adjective).

These forms and their associated participles and verbal nouns are the primary means of forming vocabulary in Arabic. All of the examples shown here are the citation forms, which in Arabic means the 3rd-person masculine singular perfect (e.g., “he did”, “he wrote”).

Form I[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Perfective فَعَلَ (faʿala), فَعِلَ (faʿila), فَعُلَ (faʿula), imperfective يَفْعَلُ (yafʿalu), يَفْعِلُ (yafʿilu), يَفْعُلُ (yafʿulu), active participle فَاعِل‎ (fāʿil), passive participle مَفْعُول‎ (mafʿūl), imperative (2nd person, m, sg) اِفْعَلْ‎ (ifʿal)‎, اِفْعِلْ (ifʿil), اُفْعُلْ (ufʿul)

This is the simplest basic form of a verb; it gives the general idea of its root. Most verbs are triliteral, but there are a few quadriliteral ones.

When the middle vowel of the perfective is a, the middle vowel of the imperfective may be a, i, or u. When the perfective vowel is i, the imperfective vowel is usually a; when the perfective vowel is u, the imperfective vowel is also u.

perfective
vowel
imperfective
vowel
example
a u كَتَبَ (kataba) يَكْتُبُ (yaktubu) to write
i غَسَلَ (ḡasala) يَغْسِلُ (yaḡsilu) to wash
a ذَهَبَ (ḏahaba) يَذْهَبُ (yaḏhabu) to go
i a شَرِبَ (šariba) يَشْرَبُ (yašrabu) to drink
i وَثِقَ (waṯiqa) يَثِقُ (yaṯiqu) to trust
u u كَرُمَ (karuma) يَكْرُمُ (yakrumu) to be generous


Form II[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Perfective فَعَّلَ (faʿʿala), imperfective يُفَعِّلُ (yufaʿʿilu), verbal noun تَفْعِيل (tafʿīl) or: تَفْعَال (tafʿāl), فِعَّال (fiʿʿāl), تَفْعِلَة (tafʿila), active participle مُفَعِّل (mufaʿʿil), passive participle مُفَعَّل (mufaʿʿal), imperative (2nd person, m, sg) فَعِّلْ (faʿʿil)

This stem is formed by doubling the second radical. The meaning this form imparts is intensive, causative, or declarative.

It is frequently used as a denominative formation to convert nouns or adjectives into verbs.


Form III[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Perfective فَاعَلَ (fāʿala), imperfective يُفَاعِلُ (yufāʿilu), verbal noun مُفَاعَلَة (mufāʿala) or: فِعَال (fiʿāl) active participle مُفَاعِل (mufāʿil), passive participle مُفَاعَل (mufāʿal), imperative (2nd person, m, sg) فَاعِلْ (fāʿil)

This stem is formed by lengthening the vowel after the first radical. The meaning of this form is associative, meaning the action of the root is either done with somebody or something else, or to somebody or something else, and it is usually transitive. The indirect object of form I is the direct object of form III. Thus, the object of the preposition إِلَى (ʾilā, to) in كَتَبَ إِلَى أَحْمَدَ (kataba ʾilā ʾaḥmada, he wrote to Ahmad) becomes the direct object of the verb in كَاتَبَ أَحْمَدَ (kātaba ʾaḥmada, he corresponded with Ahmad).


Form IV[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Perfective أَفْعَلَ (ʾafʿala), imperfective يُفْعِلُ (yufʿilu), verbal noun إِفْعَال (ʾifʿāl), active participle مُفْعِل (mufʿil), passive participle مُفْعَل (mufʿal), imperative (2nd person, m, sg) أَفْعِلْ (ʾafʿil)

This stem is formed by prefixing أَـ (ʾa-) and dropping the vowel of the first radical. In the imperfect, the أَ (ʾa) disappears and the regular imperfect prefix takes the vowel u, and the characteristic is i: يُكْتِبُ (yuktibu). The meaning this form imparts is usually causative.

Sometimes it has a declarative meaning: to say that someone has a certain quality.

Occasionally Form IV is derived from a noun and has an intransitive meaning:

ဗဵုဝေါဟာဏအ်: Category:Arabic form-IV verbs

Form V[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Perfective تَفَعَّلَ (tafaʿʿala), imperfective يَتَفَعَّلُ (yatafaʿʿalu), verbal noun تَفَعُّل (tafaʿʿul) or تِفِعَّال (tifiʿʿāl), active participle مُتَفَعِّل (mutafaʿʿil), passive participle مُتَفَعَّل (mutafaʿʿal), imperative (2nd person, m, sg) تَفَعَّلْ (tafaʿʿal)

This stem is formed by prefixing تَـ (ta-) to form II. The meaning this form imparts is the reflexive or passive of form II. Out of the reflexive also arises the effective. This differs from the passive in that the latter indicates that the person is the object of, or experiences the effect of, the action of a another; whereas the effective implies that an act is done to a person, or a state produced in them, whether it is caused by another or themselves.

ဗဵုဝေါဟာဏအ်: Category:Arabic form-V verbs

In pre-classical language the formant can be تْـ (t-) instead of تَـ (ta-) and assimilates then to alveolars. Example: اِصَّدَعَ (iṣṣadaʿa) instead of تَصَدَّعَ (taṣaddaʿa), present يَصَّدَّعُ (yaṣṣaddaʿu) instead of يَتَصَدَّعُ (yataṣaddaʿu).[၁]

Form VI[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Perfective تَفَاعَلَ (tafāʿala), imperfective يَتَفَاعَلُ (yatafāʿalu), verbal noun تَفَاعُل (tafāʿul), active participle مُتَفَاعِل (mutafāʿil), passive participle مُتَفَاعَل (mutafāʿal), imperative (2nd person, m, sg) تَفَاعَلْ (tafāʿal)

This stem is formed by prefixing تَـ (ta-) to form III. The imperfect has the vowel a throughout, except for the last: يَتَكَاتَبُ (yatakātabu), yatakātabu. The meaning this form imparts is reciprocal or one of pretence.

ဗဵုဝေါဟာဏအ်: Category:Arabic form-VI verbs

In pre-classical language the formant can be تْـ (t-) instead of تَـ (ta-) and assimilates then to alveolars (sun letters).[၁]

Form VII[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Perfective اِنْفَعَلَ (infaʿala), imperfective يَنْفَعِلُ (yanfaʿilu), verbal noun اِنْفِعَال (infiʿāl), active participle مُنْفَعِل (munfaʿil), passive participle مُنْفَعَل (munfaʿal), imperative (2nd person, m, sg) اِنْفَعِلْ (infaʿil)

This stem is formed by prefixing نـ (n-) with a prothetic vowel (اِ (i)) where necessary (in-). The meaning this form imparts is reflexive or passive. Note: this form should not be made from roots whose first radical is ‭ر (r), ل (l), ي (y), و (w), أ (ʾ), or ن (n).

ဗဵုဝေါဟာဏအ်: Category:Arabic form-VII verbs

Form VIII[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Perfective اِفْتَعَلَ (iftaʿala), imperfective يَفْتَعِلُ (yaftaʿilu), verbal noun اِفْتِعَال (iftiʿāl), active participle مُفْتَعِل (muftaʿil), passive participle مُفْتَعَل (muftaʿal), imperative (2nd person, m, sg) اِفْتَعِلْ (iftaʿil)

This stem is formed by infixing ـتَـ (-ta-) after the first radical, and with a prothetic vowel (اِ (i)) where necessary. The meaning this form imparts is the reflexive or sometimes passive, of the first form.

When the first radical of the root is ط () , ض () , ص () , ز (z) , ذ () , د (d) , ث () , ت (t) , or ظ (), the infixed ـتـ (-t-) is completely assimilated, or assimilated in voicing or emphasis:


Form IX[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Perfective اِفْعَلَّ (ifʿalla), imperfective يَفْعَلُّ (yafʿallu), verbal noun اِفْعِلَال (ifʿilāl), active participle مُفْعَلّ (mufʿall), imperative (2nd person, m, sg) اِفْعَلَّ‎ (ifʿalla)

This stem is formed by dropping the vowel of the first radical, adding a prothetic vowel (اِ (i)) where necessary, and doubling the final radical. This form is used by only a small number of verbs denoting color or bodily defect. This form has no passive participle. It is frequently connected to an adjective with the form أَفْعَل (ʾafʿal); see Appendix:Arabic nominals § Color or defect adjectives.


Form X[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Perfective اِسْتَفْعَلَ (istafʿala), imperfective يَسْتَفْعِلُ (yastafʿilu), verbal noun اِسْتِفْعَال (istifʿāl), active participle مُسْتَفْعِل (mustafʿil), passive participle مُسْتَفْعَل (mustafʿal), imperative (2nd person, m, sg) اِسْتَفْعِلْ (istafʿil)

This stem is formed by prefixing ـسْتَـ (-sta-), with a prothetic vowel (اِ (i)) where necessary, and dropping the vowel of the first radical. The meaning this form imparts is to ask or think that the sense of form I should be done.

ဗဵုဝေါဟာဏအ်: Category:Arabic form-X verbs

Form Iq[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Perfective فَعْلَقَ (faʿlaqa), imperfective يُفَعْلِقُ (yufaʿliqu), verbal noun فَعْلَقَة (faʿlaqa) or: فَعْلَاق (faʿlāq), فِعْلَاق (fiʿlāq), فُعْلَاق (fuʿlāq), active participle مُفَعْلِق (mufaʿliq), passive participle مُفَعْلَق (mufaʿlaq), imperative (2nd person, m, sg) فَعْلِقْ (faʿliq)

This is the simplest basic form of a quadriliteral verb. Most verbs are transitive, although a subset with reduplicated roots often are not. This form is similar to form II of triliteral roots.

The formation is sometimes used to convert nouns into verbs.


Form IIq[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Perfective تَفَعْلَقَ (tafaʿlaqa), imperfective يَتَفَعْلَقُ (yatafaʿlaqu), verbal noun تَفَعْلُق (tafaʿluq), active participle مُتَفَعْلِق (mutafaʿliq), passive participle مُتَفَعْلَق (mutafaʿlaq), imperative (2nd person, m, sg) تَفَعْلَقْ (tafaʿlaq)

This is a quadriliteral root stem, formed by prefixing تَ (ta) to form Iq. The meaning this form imparts is the reflexive or passive of form Iq. This form is similar to form V of triliteral roots.

ဗဵုဝေါဟာဏအ်: Category:Arabic form-IIq verbs

Other forms[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

These forms were already rare in Classical Arabic, and are even more so in Modern Standard Arabic.

Form XI[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Perfective اِفْعَالَّ (ifʿālla), imperfective يَفْعَالُّ (yafʿāllu), verbal noun اِفْعِيلَال (ifʿīlāl), active participle مُفْعَالّ (mufʿāll), imperative (2nd person, m, sg) اِفْعَالَّ‎ (ifʿālla)

This stem is formed from form IX by lengthening the vowel after the second radical. This form is very rare and it is usually used only for metrical purposes in poetry as an alternative to form IX. Some scholars [၂] suggest the XI form may have a more volatile meaning than form IX, as well as one slightly more intensive.

Example: اِحْمَارَّ (iḥmārra, to turn red, to blush)


Form XII[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Perfective اِفْعَوْعَلَ (ifʿawʿala), imperfective يَفْعَوْعِلُ (yafʿawʿilu), verbal noun اِفْعِيعَال (ifʿīʿāl), active participle مُفْعَوْعِل (mufʿawʿil), imperative (2nd person, m, sg) اِفْعَوْعِلْ (ifʿawʿil)

Example: اِحْدَوْدَبَ (iḥdawdaba, to be or become humpbacked)


Form XIII[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Perfective اِفْعَوَّلَ (ifʿawwala), imperfective يَفْعَوِّلُ (yafʿawwilu), verbal noun اِفْعِوَّال (ifʿiwwāl), active participle مُفْعَوِّل (mufʿawwil), imperative (2nd person, m, sg) اِفْعَوِّلْ (ifʿawwil)

Example: اِعْلَوَّطَ (iʿlawwaṭa, to ride or mount a camel without a saddle)
ဗဵုဝေါဟာဏအ်: Category:Arabic form-XIII verbs

Form XIV[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Perfective اِفْعَنْلَلَ (ifʿanlala), imperfective يَفْعَنْلِلُ‎ (yafʿanlilu), verbal noun اِفْعِنْلَال‎ (ifʿinlāl), active participle مُفْعَنْلِل‎ (mufʿanlil), imperative (2nd person, m, sg) اِفْعَنْلِلْ (ifʿanlil)

Example: اِسْحَنْكَكَ (isḥankaka, to be or become caliginous)
ဗဵုဝေါဟာဏအ်: Category:Arabic form-XIV verbs

Form XV[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Perfective اِفْعَنْلَى (ifʿanlā), imperfective ‎يَفْعَنْلَى‎ (yafʿanlā), verbal noun اِفْعِنْلَاء‎‎ (ifʿinlāʾ), active participle مُفْعَنْلٍ‎ (mufʿanlin), imperative (2nd person, m, sg) اِفْعَنْلَ‎ (ifʿanla)

Example: اِسْرَنْدَى (israndā, to vanquish)
ဗဵုဝေါဟာဏအ်: Category:Arabic form-XV verbs

Form IIIq[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Perfective اِفْعَنْلَقَ (ifʿanlaqa), imperfective يَفْعَنْلِقُ (yafʿanliqu), verbal noun اِفْعِنْلَاق (ifʿinlāq), active participle مُفْعَنْلِق (mufʿanliq), imperative (2nd person, m, sg) اِفْعَنْلِقْ (ifʿanliq)

Example: اِحْرَنْجَمَ (iḥranjama, to crowd)
ဗဵုဝေါဟာဏအ်: Category:Arabic form-IIIq verbs

Form IVq[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Perfective اِفْعَلَقَّ (ifʿalaqqa), imperfective يَفْعَلِقُّ‎ (yafʿaliqqu), verbal noun اِفْعِلْقَاق‎ (ifʿilqāq), active participle مُفْعَلِقّ‎ (mufʿaliqq), imperative (2nd person, m, sg) اِفْعَلِقَّ (ifʿaliqqa)


Exceptions[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Hamzated verbs[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

Verbs are called hamzated if ء (hamza) is one of the root consonants (radicals). The phonetical pattern of the conjugation of these verbs doesn't differ from other verbs in all forms but because of the rules of positioning of hamza, the spelling is affected in some forms, e.g. the verb أَكَلَ (ʾakala) (ʾ-k-l) has the form يَأْكُلُ (yaʾkulu) in the imperfect masculine singular and the verb قَرَأَ (qaraʾa) (q-r-ʾ) has the form تَقْرَئِينَ (taqraʾīna) in the imperfect feminine singular.


Weak verbs[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

TO DO Weak verbs are verbs that have one of the radicals و or ي.

  1. Assimilated verbs (R1 = و or ي)
    Form I: وَجَدَ (wajada) - "to find", imperfective يَجِدُ (yajidu).
    ဗဵုဝေါဟာဏအ်: Category:Arabic assimilated verbs
  2. Hollow verbs (R2 = و or ي)
    Form I: قَالَ (qāla) - "to say" قَالَتْ (qālat) "she said" but قُلْتُ (qultu, I said), قُلْتَ (qulta, you m said), قُلْتِ (qulti, you f said); imperfective يَقُولُ (yaqūlu) "he said", يَقُلْنَ (yaqulna) "they (f.) say".
  1. Final-weak verbs (R3 = و or ي), e.g. مَشَى (mašā) - "to walk", رَمَى (ramā) - "to throw", حَظِيَ (ḥaẓiya) - "to be in the good graces of, to enjoy", بَقِيَ (baqiya) - "to stay, to remain", دَعَا (daʿā) - "to call sb., to summon sb."., لَقِيَ (laqiya) - "to meet sb.".


Other examples of weak verbs:

Quadriliteral verbs[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

The Arabic verb forms

Most Arabic words are derived from a three-letter (trilateral) root. And each trilateral Arabic root can theoretically be transformed into one of fifteen possible verb forms (الْأَوْزَان (al-ʾawzān)). (Forms 11 through 15 are very rare, so people usually just focus on forms 1 through 10, although 9 is also pretty rare). Each form has a basic meaning associated with the general meaning of the root being used. Here's a more detailed breakdown, using فعل (fa3ala, to do) as an example. (This is all taken from old handouts I got at the AUC, so it's not my original work.) Form 1 - فعل (fa3ala) Expresses the general verbal meaning of the root in question

Root Form 1 verb خ ر ج (x-r-j) - leaving, departing خرج (xaraja) - to leave, go out ج م ع (j-m-3) - joining, uniting جمع (jama3a) - to gather, collect ع م ل (3-m-l) - doing, making عمل (3amala) - to work, to do, to make ق ط ع (q-T-3) - cutting قطع (qaTa3a) - to cut, cut off ب ع د (b-3-d) - separating, distance بعد (ba3ada) - to be far from

Form 2 - فعّل (fa33ala) Built on form 1 by doubling the middle radical of the form 1 verb (adding a shadda to it) Often is a causative version of the form 1 verb خرج (xaraja) means "to go out"; خرّج (xarraja) means "to make (s.o.) go out; to graduate (s.o.)"

Often an intensive version of the form 1 verb (especially if the form 1 verb is transitive) جمع (jama3a) means "to collect, gather"; جمّع (jamma3a) means "to amass, to accummulate"

Form 3 - فاعل (faa3ala) Built on form 1 by adding an alif between the first and second radicals of the form 1 verb Usually gives an associative meaning to the form 1 verb; describes someone doing the act in question to or with someone else عمل (3amala) means "to work"; عامل (3aamala) means "to treat or deal with (s.o.)"

Form 4 - أفعل (af3ala) Built on form 1 by prefixing an alif to the form 1 verb and putting a sukuun over the first radical Similar to form 2 in that it is usually a causative version of the form 1 verb خرج (xaraja) means "to go out"; خرّج (xarraja) means "to graduate (s.o.)"; أخرج (axraja) means "to expel, to evict; to produce"

Form 5 - تفعّل (tafa33ala) Built on form 2 by adding the prefix تـ to the form 2 verb Often a reflexive version of the form 2 verb خرّج (xarraja) means "to graduate (s.o.)"; تخرج (taxarraja) means "to graduate" (Note: form 5 is usually intransitive)

Sometimes an intensive version of a form 1 verb جمع (jama3a) means "to collect, gather"; تجمّع (tajamma3a) means "to congregate, to flock together"

Form 6 - تفاعل (tafaa3ala) Built on form 3 by adding the prefix تـ to the form 3 verb Usually a reflexive version of the form 3 verb عامل (3aamala) means "to treat or deal with (s.o.)"; تعامل (ta3aamala) means "to deal with each other" (Form 6 is usually intransitive)

Form 7 - انفعل (infa3ala) Built on form 1 by adding the prefix انـ to the form 1 verb Usually a reflexive and/or passive version of the form 1 verb قطع (qaTa3a) means "to cut, to cut off"; انقطع (inqaTa3a) means "to be cut off (from); to abstain (from)"

Form 8 - افتعل (ifta3ala) Built on form 1 by adding the prefix ا to the form 1 verb and placing a sukuun must be placed over its first radical Often a reflexive version of the form 1 verb جمع (jama3a) means "to collect, gather"; اجتمع (ijtama3a) means "to meet; to agree (on)"

Sometimes has a specially derived meaning relative to a form 1 verb بعد (ba3ada) means "to be far away"; ابتعد (ibta3ada) means "to avoid"

Form 9 - افعلّ (if3alla) Built on form 1 by adding the prefix ا to the form 1 verb, placing a sukuun over its first radical, and adding a shadda to the last radical Relates to colors ح م ر (H-m-r) relates to "redness"; احمرّ (iHmarra) means "to become or turn red"

Form 10 - استفعل (istaf3ala) Built on form 1 by adding the prefix استـ to the form 1 verb and inserting a ت between the first and second radicals; a sukuun must be placed over the first radical Often a considerative version of the form 1 verb; means "to -->DO Quadriliteral verbs are made from roots having four radicals, e.g. تَرْجَمَ (tarjama) - "to translate"; هَنْدَسَ (handasa) - "to engineer"; قَهْقَهَ (qahqaha) - "to laugh loudly"; تَبَلْوَرَ (tabalwara) - "to be crystalized" (form IIq); اِحْرَنْجَمَ (iḥranjama) - "to press one another" (form IIIq); اِطْمَأَنَّ (iṭmaʾanna) - "to be calm" (form IVq).

Geminate verbs[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

TO DO Geminate verbs are verbs that have the second and the third radicals the same, e.g. مَدَّ (madda) - "to stretch"; دَلَّ (dalla) - "to indicate"; ظَنَّ (ẓanna) - "to think"; حَاقَّ (ḥāqqa) - "to sue, to litigate" (form III); أَحَبَّ (ʾaḥabba) - "to love" (form IV); تَضَادَّ (taḍādda) - "to be opposed to one another" (form VI); اِنْشَقَّ (inšaqqa) - "to split" (form VII); اِحْتَلَّ (iḥtalla) - "to occupy" (form VIII); اِسْتَرَدَّ (istaradda) - "to demand back" (form X).

နိဿဲ[ပလေဝ်ဒါန်]

  1. ၁.၀ ၁.၁ Fischer, Wolfdietrich (2006) Grammatik des Klassischen Arabisch (in German), 4th edition, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, →ISBN, § 47, page 26
  2. Haywood, J.A.; Nahmad, H.M. (1962) A New Arabic Grammar of the Written Language by Haywood, Harvard University Press, page 185