အညွှန်းသို့ ခုန်ကူးရန် ရှာဖွေရန် ခုန်ကူးမည်
|IPA||enPR / AHD||examples|
|ɑː||ɑ||ɒ, ɑ||ɐː||ä||father, palm|
|ɑː||ɑɹ||ɐː||är||arm, bard, starry|
|æ, a||æ||ɛ||ă||bad, cat, ran|
|æɹ||æɹ, ɛɹ||ɛɹ||æɹ||ɛɹ||ăr||carry, marry, paragraph|
|eɪ||æe, ae||ā||day, pain, hey, weight|
|ɛː||eɹ, ɛɹ||ɛɹ||eː||iə, eə||âr||hair, there, fairy, vary, Mary|
|ɛ||e, ɛ||ɪ, e||ĕ||bed, egg, meadow|
|ɛɹ||eɹ||ĕr||very, error, merry|
|iː||i||iː, ɪi||iː, ɘi||ē||ease, see, siege, ceiling|
|ɪː||ɪɹ||iɹ||ɪə, ɪː||iə, iːə, eə||îr||near, here, serious|
|ɪ, i||i||(ē)||city, everyday, mania, geography|
|ɪ||ɘ||ĭ||sit, city, bit, will|
|ɪ||ə||ɘ||(ĭ)||roses, spotted, secure|
|aɪ||aɪ (ʌɪ)||ɑe, ɒe||ī||my, rice, pie, hi, Mayan|
|ɒ||ɑ||ɒ, ɑ||ɔ, ɒ||ŏ||not, wasp, boss, moth|
|ɒɹ, ɔɹ||ɑɹ||ɔɹ||ɔɹ, ɒɹ||ŏr||borrow, sorry, sorrow, tomorrow, (morrow)|
|ɔɹ||horror, forest, orange, quarrel, warrior|
|əʊ||oʊ||əʉ, ɐʉ||ɐʉ||ō||no, go, hope, know, toe|
|ʊ||o͝o, ŏŏ||put, foot, wolf|
|ʊə||ʊɹ||ʊə||ʉə,ʉːə, oː||o͝or, ŏŏr||tour, tourism, stoor|
|uː||u||ʉː||o͞o, ōō||lose, soon, through|
|aʊ||æo||ou||house, now, tower|
|ʌ||ɐ||ŭ||run, enough, up, other|
|ɜː||ɝ||ɜː||ɵː||ûr||fur, blurry, bird, swerve|
|ə||ɘ||ə||Rosa's, about, oppose|
|ə||ɚ||ə||ɘ||ər||winner, enter, error, doctor|
|IPA||enPR / AHD||examples|
|b||b||but, web, rubble|
|t͡ʃ||ch||chat, teach, nature|
|d||d||dot, idea, nod|
|f||f||fan, left, enough, photo|
|d͡ʒ||j||joy, agile, age|
|x||ᴋʜ||loch (in Scottish English)|
|m||m||man, animal, him|
|m̩ (əm)||m||spasm, prism|
|n||n||note, ant, pan|
|p||p||pen, spin, top, apple|
|s||s||set, list, ice|
|ʃ||sh||ash, sure, ration|
|θ||th||thin, nothing, moth|
|ð||th||this, father, clothe|
|z||z||zoo, quiz, rose|
|ˈ (ˈa)||ʹ (aʹ)||primary stress, as in rapping /ˈɹæpɪŋ/|
|ˌ (ˌa)||' (a')||secondary stress (or sometimes tertiary stress) before the primary stress,|
tertiary stress after the primary stress as in battlefield /ˈbætəlˌfiːld/
|a.a||a-a||division between syllables|
|̩||syllabic consonant, as in ridden [ˈɹɪdn̩]|
|ʔ||glottal stop, as in uh-oh /ˈʌʔoʊ/, [ˈʌ̆ʔ˦oʊ˨]|
|̃ (ã)||nasalization, as in croissant /ˈkɹwæsɒ̃/|
- RP /æ/ is sometimes transcribed /a/, for example in dictionaries of the Oxford University Press.
- See bad–lad split for more discussion of the vowel /æ/ in Australian English.
- In many accents in the United States and most accents in Canada, some or all of the vowels of Mary, marry, and merry are merged (the Mary–marry–merry merger). If all three are merged, the resulting vowel is usually transcribed /ɛɹ/. In accents that distinguish all three, marry has /æɹ/, merry has /ɛɹ/, and Mary has /eɹ/.
- An older alternative symbol to RP /ɛː/ is /eə/, reflecting the mid height of the vowel in earlier RP, and the fact that it was a centring diphthong.
- RP in the early 20th century had five centring diphthongs /ɑə/, /eə/, /ɪə/, /ɔə/, /ʊə/. Of these, /ɔə/ formerly contrasted with a long vowel /ɔː/. All of them are now generally pronounced as long monophthongs (pure vowels) /ɑː/, /ɔː/, /ɛː/, /ɪː/, /ɵː/ (monophthongization). However, many words that formerly had /ʊə/ (= /ɵː/) are now pronounced with /ɔː/. /ɑə/ monophthongized first, very early in the 20th century, then /ɔə/, and more recently the rest.
- /ɛ/ is sometimes transcribed /e/ for RP—for example, in the Collins English Dictionary.
- For RP, /aɪ/ is also transcribed (e.g. by Oxford University Press) as /ʌɪ/
- Only the words borrow, sorry, sorrow, tomorrow, and, for some speakers, morrow, and words derived from these.
- This sequence only occurs before another vowel. In some American English dialects, such as eastern coastal American English, the /ɒɹ/ in forest and origin doesn't merge with /ɔːɹ/ (such as in horse and north), unlike General American. See Mergers of /ɒɹ-/ and /ɔːɹ-/ for more details.
- Excluding the words borrow, sorry, sorrow, tomorrow, and, for some speakers, morrow, and words derived from these.
- For RP, /əː/ is sometimes used as an alternative to /ɜː/—for example, in dictionaries of the Oxford University Press.
- /ɝ/ and /ɚ/ are not actually phonemically distinct in General American and Canadian English, but are transcribed this way for consistency with the Received Pronunciation transcription system. /əɹ/ is perhaps a more accurate phonemic transcription for both—for example, the Merriam–Webster Dictionary uses /ər/ as an alternative to both /ɝ/ and /ɚ/.
- Some phonologists dispute that /ʍ/ is a distinct phoneme in English, and use /hw/ instead.
- Some phonologists dispute that /l̩/, /n̩/, /m̩/ are distinct phonemes in English, and use /əl/, /ən/, /əm/ instead.
- Often written /r/, especially in works that cover only English, even though the sound is not a trill. For further information, see Pronunciation of English /r/.